Green Fire Remediation & Reclamation
SOLUTIONS AND TECHNOLOGY OVERVIEW
Many of the major global challenges facing modern society are the methods in which waste-streams are properly managed, disposed of, and/or remediated. The expense of executing responsible and effective models to this end has also represented a significant challenge.
While governments and global agencies recognize the magnitude of waste proliferation and the urgency of this dilemma, they continually struggle to find an effective and economically viable remedy.
Green Fire believes that the solution must resolve not only the disposal of waste with no adverse environmental impact, but also achieve this in a way that is economically viable so that the solution may be embraced around the world in all economic environments. Green Fire and their partners have developed a unique solution to this problem as a result of exhaustive testing — using innovative technology backed by demonstrated science and practical engineering.
Green Fire technologies and those of its partners represent a paradigm shift from the current practice of disposing of waste by burning, ignoring it, landfill and in the most egregious cases, by dumping into waterways and oceans.
In our Green Fire world, the majority of waste will be converted to reusable products through thermal decomposition in a controlled atmosphere so that no gases or fumes may escape. These technologies are powered primarily from the energy they develop in the process of producing highly valuable and readily marketable off-take intermediates and byproducts.
Who is Green Fire?
Green Fire is an engineering company specializing in waste Remediation and Reclamation (R&R).
Green Fire is engaged with the patent holder of a core plasma technology in the development and implementation of the next application in the evolution in the plasma remediation and reclamation technology.
Green Fire plasma waste converters can treat almost any kind of waste, including some traditionally difficult waste materials. It can treat medical waste or chemically-contaminated waste and leave nothing but gases and slag. Because it breaks down these dangerous wastes into their basic elements, they can be disposed of safely.
Brief Green Fire Technology Description
The Green Fire Technology is an electrochemical system powered by electricity that produces an intense field of radiant energy (plasma) that causes the dissociation (breaking apart) of the molecular bonds of solid, liquid and gaseous compounds or materials of both hazardous and nonhazardous wastes (feedstock) organic and inorganic.
The Green Fire process is not a burning process, and it should not be confused with incineration.
The Green Fire System is a Multiple Waste Processing System
The multi patented gasification technology is capable of processing a wide variety of input feedstocks; these wastes can be processed individually or in combination. Green Fire Systems provide a disposal solution for the following types of waste:
Municipal Solid Waste
Mining Waste and Remediation
Bio-Mass and Agricultural Wastes
Medical Wastes, Hospital & Hazardous Wastes
Sewage and Industrial Process Sludges
Industrial Solid Wastes
Paper and Cardboard
Automobile Shredder Residues
Tires & Plastics
Liquid Waste: Spent Oils, Solvents, Paints, Paint Thinners
What is a Green Fire System?
The Green Fire System is a fully integrated factory based modular system for easy project setup and allows for integrating additional modular units to expand the overall system. Each system is capable of processing throughputs of 50 ton per 24-hour day or more, dependent on the feedstock.
Each project requires installation of appropriate feedstock handling and conditioning equipment to match the project and system requirements. Larger capacity plants utilize a number of Green Fire reactors with central feed and discharge.
Green Fire furnishes a full turnkey system or professional technical guidance and support for customers.
We address each reclamation project with a system that is unique to that project. We design solutions around our core plasma technology, integrating other appropriate systems and sub systems to complete the most efficient and complementary system for the project and community.
Our projects are unique in that they follow the core belief that no matter how valuable a technology might be, there is no single technology that will provide a complete solution to any waste stream problem or industrial remediation process. Technologies are ever-changing, and even fleeting. GFR differentiates itself from other environmental and renewable energy companies in that we are dedicated to combining multiple, best-in-class technologies that represent a truly complete solution to feedstock remanufacturing and waste remediation at a single location, at a cost effective price, and with a quick path to a return on investment. The integrated implementation designs are modular to allow for improvements as new technologies become available.
What is the Green Fire System Process
The GF plasma application, it is unique but still is described as Gasification.
Plasma gasification is a process that converts organic or fossil fuel based carbonaceous materials into carbon monoxide, hydrogen and carbon dioxide. This is achieved by reacting the material at high temperatures, without combustion, with a controlled atmosphere.
The resulting gas mixture is called syngas (from synthesis gas or synthetic gas) and is itself a fuel. The power derived from gasification and combustion of the resultant gas is considered to be a source of renewable energy.
The advantage of gasification is that using the syngas is potentially more efficient than direct combustion of the original fuel. Syngas may be burned directly in gas engines, used to produce methanol and hydrogen, or converted into synthetic fuel.
Green Fire uses the Gasification to generate electricity to power the process and to share with the local community.
Features of the Green Fire Waste Gasification System
The most advanced gasification (thermal decomposition) system in the world addresses the global problem of waste management by quickly, safely and economically converting petrochemical compounds from plastics, organic waste, coal, tires and a range of other wastes into valuable fuels and by- products. The main features of this system are:
Generates part of its own energy
Complete breakdown of all waste products
Safe and efficient energy conversion with no environmental impact
Operates continuously without interruption (not a batch system)
Creates high-grade end products not requiring further refinement
Easily installed, operated and maintained with minimal training
Clean, green, efficient, sophisticated yet simple and highly profitable
Return of investment is under 2 years (typically 18 months)
Achieves 30% energy saving over other systems
Produces exceptionally high quality byproducts
Based on the processing system, a variety of materials are produced at a rate of 150 to 750 tons per day; the cost per kwh produced will be in the $0.03 to $0.05 per kwh range. Municipal solid waste can usually be received, processed and turned into an acceptable Refuse Derived Fuel [RDF] for between $10 and $16 per ton. This cost competes favorably with other technologies in the Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) disposal industry.
Green Fire Plasma Gasification
The GF plasma torch’s temperature ranges from 4,000 to 25,000 °F (2,200 to 13,900 °C). A strong electric current under high voltage passes through the electrode as an electric halo in a reactor chamber.
The temperature of the plasma reaction determines the structure of the plasma and forming gas.
The waste is heated, melted and finally vaporised. At these conditions molecular dissociation occurs by breaking down molecular bonds. Complex molecules are separated into individual atoms. The resulting elemental components are in a gaseous phase. Molecular dissociation using plasma is referred to as “plasma pyrolysis.”
Within the Green Fire System, the molecules of the waste material are separated into their elemental components (atoms), and then reformed into recoverable nonhazardous commodity products ready for commercial use.
This new technological application, of the plasma gasification process has the potential to “eat up” all this trash, leaving only energy and valuable materials (and producing no greenhouse gas emissions to boot).
The Green Fire Plasma gasification is the next generation of thermal treatment techniques. By running a high voltage current through a pressurized, inert gas, tremendously high temperatures can be induced (up to 50,000 degree Fahrenheit – three times as hot as the surface of the sun).
This system is capable of obliterating any type of waste – excluding some very rare, high-energy nuclear wastes – and converting them into elementary gases and an inert obsidian-like slag material. The process is highly exothermic – so with certain feedstocks there is a surplus of energy produced; once the system is initiated, it has the capacity of offsetting capital and operating costs through power generation.
The emissions from gasification, dubbed syngas, will be converted on-site into hydrogen and other gas products for sale. Green Fire, a leading developer of plasma gasification technology and systems, estimates that the combined sales of the power surplus and hydrogen production would allow plants to profit $15 from each ton of waste processed.
Green Fire Plasma Remediation
Many waste remediation systems have been developed with the intent of converting all forms of toxic and non-toxic MSW, sewage and other medical, commercial and industrial waste (except nuclear) into green energy and useful by-products, thereby enabling communities to recapture lost energy, resources, lands and waterways.
Sustained high-energy plasma generation has been considered the best technology for this application, but stable, scalable and affordable processes have eluded scientists for decades.
Today, high-energy plasma devices using controlled, contained, sustained and extremely high temperatures (45,000+ F) quickly, safely and economically, disassemble any combination of toxic or non- toxic gas, liquid or solids into their elemental components; the end products are clean energy, pure water and dramatically reduced, inert waste streams (that may have other applications). Such plasma devices are of modest size, have a low per-unit manufacturing cost, and are already in production. We can pursue the applications defined below.
Immediate Applications for Green Fire Plasma
Remediation of mine tailings and ores, extracting precious metals and rare earth materials.
Remediation of community and industrial waste and other waste streams, eliminating waste, while providing surplus power and reducing transportation of hazardous wastes through our public and natural environments.
Remediation of water-based waste streams from “fracking,” industrial, manufacturing, and large building wastewater treatment while generating inexpensive electricity.
Green Fire Markets
Green Fire has four primary markets to address; Remediation of Mining Waste, remediation of Super Fund sites and remediation of municipal, industrial landfills and the reclamation of potable water.
In all instances, Green Fire receives compensation from project fees and the sale of the recovered minerals.
There are about 14,500 active coal, metal, and nonmetal mineral mines in the United States, between 100,000 and 500,000 abandoned hard rock (metals and nonmetal minerals) mines on private, state, and federal lands in the west, and approximately 13,000 abandoned coal mines, mostly small and mid-sized, in the east.
Many of these properties continue to impact human health and the environment because of the materials left behind and because mined-out areas are exposed to the elements.
Most of the mine sites are on land for which the federal government is responsible, primarily DOI and USDA. Most of the budgets of these agencies are directed to safety and water quality issues, and a smaller portion is available for site remediation.
There is a wide range of estimates and opinions on how many mining properties pose a serious risk to the environment and are likely candidates for remediation. The most promising estimates indicate that about 8,000 – 31,000 abandoned mine sites pose a significant risk to the environment and human health. The estimated cost for hardrock mining sites alone is $20-54 billion.
Remediation of Mining Waste and Super Fund sites
Every waste site is surveyed and analyzed for the conditions determining the parameters of the clean-up project observation evaluation.
The business model focuses on clean up of old mining facilities and super fund sites.
Results, Green Fire Remediation Works
Every super fund or waste site contains recoverable mineral content. The Green Fire System cleans the site while extracting, from waste, all mineral content to be processed for sale.
Remediation of Community and Industrial Waste Landfill
Currently, the U.S. has 3,091 active landfills and over 10,000 old municipal landfills, according to the Environmental Protection Agency. However, historically, every town (and many businesses and factories) had its own dump. According to the 1997 U.S. Census, there are 39,044 general purpose local governments in the United States – 3,043 county governments and 36,001 sub-county general purpose governments (towns & townships). Thus, the conclusion is that are many more old and abandoned commercial, private, and municipal dumps than the 10,000 estimated by the EPA.
Municipal landfills and their leachate (water) and air emissions are hazardous. Municipal landfills can accept hazardous waste under federal law. An unlimited number of ‘conditionally exempt small generators’ of hazardous waste have access to municipal landfills. (See 40 CFR 261.5).
All landfills will eventually fail and leak leachate into ground and surface water. Plastics are not inert; state-of-the-art plastic (HDPE) landfill liners (1/10 inch or 100 mils thick) and plastic pipes allow chemicals and gases to pass through their membranes, and they become brittle, swell, and eventually break down.
Green Fire Municipal Solid Waste Processing
Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) is a major problem for all cities, however it represents a potentially valuable energy resource. Currently, most MSW is sent to landfills or is burnt in incinerators. Both the landfill and incinerator solutions cause significant environmental problems such as air pollution, land pollution and contamination, as well as being costly to set up and maintain. Significant amounts of toxic materials are buried under ground, including the waste generated from incineration. The public is highly sensitive to global warming and CO2 emission problems.
New generation waste-to-energy systems for dealing with MSW are now being taken seriously by the public and the regulatory authorities responsible for the environment. Currently, most countries are considering replacements for incineration and landfill. at the focus is on new technologies including gasification, plasma gasification waste-to-energy and pyrolysis technologies; to date, all thnese technologies have inherent drawbacks.
The Green Fire thermal decomposition system overcomes these problems and can be tailor-made to match individual requirements. Some of the advantages of the system are:
Very few, if any, hydrocarbons need to go to landfill.
These remaining hydrocarbons can be eliminated with additional technology provided by Green Fire.
Low capital expenditure – very quick payback periods.
Modular construction makes it easy to expand or relocate.
Byproducts of the operation are carbon and fuel-oil – both valuable commodities.
Simple to operate by semi-skilled personnel.
Full warrantee and support service by the manufacturer.
Complete “no mess” turnkey plant layout and equipment, if required.
MSW is a mixed waste, containing various composites and is difficult to treat by traditional methods. Conventional pyrolysis systems are inherently dangerous due to the possibility of hydrogen buildup; as well they are also unable to efficiently treat a mixed feedstock.
Typical methods employed in gasification of municipal wastes, with their inherent problems of air pollution and fly ash residue, require large and very expensive plants to convert hydrocarbons to fuel-gas. This gas is in turn used to run a gas turbine to generate electricity.
A Green Fire plant for municipal waste processing can be tailor-made to the requirements of the customer; the system is modular and has a small footprint. A small single-reactor plant will process 50 tons of mixed waste per 24-hour day , while being a commercially viable plant. Ease-of-operation is high; the plant can be operated by semi-skilled personnel. As well the plant can pay for itself in a short time frame through the sale of the commercial byproducts Notably, typical land fill solutions have serious limitations with pollution issues, environmental impacts and are very costly to operate and maintain.
This small and relatively inexpensive plant is ideal for smaller communities or for installation of a number of local plants in larger communities, significantly reducing transport.
Green Fire Water Purification
Global Water Fast Facts
Water, sanitation and hygiene has the potential to prevent at least 9.1% of the global disease burden and 6.3% of all deaths.
Worldwide, 780 million people do not have access to an improved water source. Many more obtain their drinking water from improved, but microbiologically unsafe, sources.
An estimated 2.5 billion people — half of the developing world — lack access to adequate sanitation (more than 35% of the world’s population
The need for abundant sources of pure, clean and inexpensive water cannot be over emphasized. Second only to the air we breathe water is the most important resource for sustaining life. In fact, clean water is a birthright, not a privilege. Yet every day, two million tons of human waste is dumped in our waterways while pesticide and fertilizer runoff pollute millions of acre-feet of ground and coastal waters while industrial processes dump millions of gallons of impure and untreated toxic waste into our streams, rivers, lakes and oceans every year.
There is but one solution to this. WE MUST STOP NOW!
Through advanced waste remediation and water purification technologies that end the pollution of our waterways, purify and recycle the water resources to which we already have access and keep clean what is left. Only in this way will 2.5 billion people no longer suffer from inadequate sanitation and 3.4 million people die each year from water- borne illnesses.
What Does the Green Fire Process Yield
Pure highly calorific synthetic gas consisting predominantly of Carbon monoxide (CO), H2, CH, among other components. The conversion rate of plasma gasification exceeds 99%. Non-flammable inorganic components in the waste stream are not broken down. This includes various metals. A phase change from solid to liquid adds to the volume of slag.
Plasma processing of waste is ecologically clean. The lack of oxygen prevents the formation of many toxic materials. The high temperatures in a reactor also prevent the main components of the gas from forming toxic compounds such as furans, dioxins, nitrogen oxides, or sulfur dioxide. Water filtration removes ash and gaseous pollutants.
The production of ecologically clean synthetic gas is the standard goal. The gas product contains no phenols or complex hydrocarbons however circulating water from filtering systems is toxic. The water removes toxins (poisons) and the hazardous substances which must be cleaned.
Metals resulting from plasma pyrolysis can be recovered from the slag and eventually sold as a commodity. Inert slag is granulated. This slag grain is used in construction. A portion of the syngas produced feeds on-site turbines, which power the plasma torches and thus support the feed system. This is self-sustaining electric power.
Why is Green Fire better?
The difference between gasification and pyrolysis is the operating temperature and the by-product, which is generated. Gasification operates at temperatures over 600°C. At this temperature, hydrocarbons will decompose to fuel gas so gasification is suitable for converting large amounts of organic waste to fuel-gas, which is then connected to a gas turbine to generate electricity.
Green Fire differs from today’s plasma technologies that uses the electrode arc torch technology, in that, Green Fire uses a halo designed flat element through which the waste stream passes and is decomposed immediately with out any further creation of harmful waste byproducts. Our process is completely clean and much more efficient.
The Green Fire mission is to apply our solutions to global Remediation and Reclamation crises that are ever growing and expanding.
All of our technology implementation applications are built on the idea that no technology should be utilized if it cannot ROI in 3 to 5 years. Therefore, we strive to achieve an optimum 3 year return on every project, and will keep working to adjust models to absolutely achieve the 5 year payback
Green Fire Remediation and Reclamation System:
Is a leading edge safe and efficient energy conversion system
Is a continuous system requiring no additional fuel after the thermal decomposition reaction
Achieves at least a 30% energy saving over other systems
Produces exceptionally high quality byproducts
Is a continuous system with a high production rate
Utilizes multi-purpose controlled thermal dynamic reaction systems
Incorporates a unique two stage process in one system
Immediate Community Electrical Benefits:
The Green Fire system requires electricity for power. At startup the system requires 100% of the electricity to come from the local grid. After operational stability is reached, the system will produce syngas. Syngas is then used to power the plant electrical generators.
Two conditions may occur: our generation system will produce more electricity than the system needs to operate, or we may produce more syngas than we can use. Green Fire agrees to make the excess available to the local community or appropriate facility.
Normal combustion of waste produces a large amount of toxic by-products. The cost of removing these toxic by-products is the major cost of mass-burn Waste-to-Energy facilities. Additionally, the combustion process consumes vital energy compounds such as Hydrogen and Carbon Monoxide. These compounds are better used in the production of liquid fuels or electric power.
These issues are resolved in the gasification technology resulting in an energy conversion efficiency of 80 %. This means 80% of the energy put into the gasifier comes out of the gasifier in the form of a clean cool easily used producer gas. This energy conversion efficiency is appreciably higher than other combustion systems. We know of no gasification system having a higher energy conversion efficiency.
Waste To Electric Energy
The Gasification Technology has the following advantages in comparison to the competition:
There are no air emissions from the Gasifier. The system will satisfy the strictest environmental
regulations. No emission results in significant overall cost savings.
The system can start up and stop as required. The system is designed to operate 24 hours per day, 7 days per week. At the same time, the system is well suited for facilities where operations are not required seven days per week.
The system operates at low pressures and temperatures, which results in lower maintenance costs, less stringent operating permits and safer system operation.
Complete diagnostics are built into the computer-controlled operating system allowing for remote diagnostic testing.
Capital costs are lower due to the simplicity of the design and efficiency of the gas cleaning system.
The overall system is as much as one-half the size and cost of competing systems.
Based on processing a variety of materials at a rate of 150 to 750 tons per day, the cost per kwh produced will be in the $0.03 to $0.05 per kwh range. Municipal solid waste can usually be received, processed and turned into an acceptable Refuse Derived Fuel [RDF] for between $10 and $16 per ton. This cost favorably competes with other technologies in the MSW disposal industry.
Benefits of Green Fire to the community
When Green Fire moves on location, by default, we bring energy, waste, water, food, wellness and vocational training programs for the benefit of any community. Additional technologies for new construction and remodeling of existing facilities are also available.
What Green Fire Produces
Carbon Free Energy: Hydrogen-plasma fueled rotary generators providing electricity for residential, commercial and industrial consumers for less than $500K per megawatt.
Waste Remediation: Plasma and Gasification systems convert waste into energy and valuable by-products at a fraction of the size and cost of competing systems.
Water Purification & Structuring: Magnetic water purification systems remove 96% of impurities for 1/20th the cost of competing systems.
Accelerated Food Production: Food growing systems that generate the energy and water required to grow high-quality organic foods, three times faster, on one-tenth the land that conventional agricultural systems require.
Healthcare & Wellness: All-natural proto-biotic formulas that target the salt markers within pathogenic organisms and bacteria harmful to humans, animals, agriculture and watersheds, and renders them harmless by dissolving their proteins and chemical bonds on contact.
Academic & Vocational Curriculums: Educational and Internship programs that prepare students to design, install and maintain the full spectrum of technology business solutions in accordance with the Green Fire Plan.
The Green Fire Business Model:
The waste site clean-up is charged on a per-ton fee basis.
Minerals reclaimed from our process remain the property of Green Fire.
Green Fire has a Marketing group dedicated to marketing any and all recovered minerals.
Green Fire, will share profits from the sale of the minerals with the local community…
Green Fire revenue comes from site remediation and from any minerals recovered.
Green Fire System ROI
All of our technology implementation applications are built on the idea that no technology should be utilized if it cannot realize an ROI in 3 to 5 years. Therefore, we strive to achieve an optimum 3 year return on projects, and will keep modifying and optimizing models to absolutely achieve the 5 year payback.
The standard factory Green Fire System model, offered by Green Fire, is suitable for processing waste amounts up to 50 tons per day per reactor. These systems may also be combined as modules to increase through-put and efficiencies.
How Plasma Converters Work
Remediation of Mining Waste and Super Fund sites
Remediation of Community and Industrial Waste Landfill
Global Water, Sanitation, & Hygiene(WASH)